Basic training

Module 1. Mathematics(EASA Part-66)

Content

  • Arithmetic: (level 2)

Arithmetical terms and signs, methods of multiplication and division, fractions and decimals, factors and multiples, weights, measures andconversion factors, ratio and proportion, averages and percentages, areasand volumes, squares, cubes, square and cube roots.

  • Algebra: (level 2)

Evaluating simple algebraic expressions, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, use of brackets, simple algebraic fractions Linear equations and their solutions; Indices and powers, negative and fractional indices; Binary and other applicable numbering systems; Simultaneous equations and second degree equations with oneunknown; Logarithms

  • Geometry: (level 2)

Simple geometrical constructions; Graphical representation; nature and uses of graphs, graphs ofequations/functions; Simple trigonometry; trigonometrical relationships, use of tables andrectangular and polar coordinates.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 2. Physics (EASA Part-66)

Content

  • Matter (level 1)

Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules; Chemical compounds; States: solid, liquid and gaseous; Changes between states.

  • Mechanics (level 2)
    • Statics

Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors; Centre of gravity; Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity: tension, compression, shear and torsion; Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas; Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).

  • Kinetics

Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion underconstant acceleration (motion under gravity);

Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifuga l/ centripetalforces);

Periodic motion: pendular movement; Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance; Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.

  • Dynamics
  • Mass

Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency

  • Momentum, conservation of momentum; Impulse; Gyroscopic principles;

Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).

  • Fluid Dynamics
  • Specific gravity and density;
  • Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining; Effects of compressibility on fluids; Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, venturi.
    • Thermodynamics (level 2)
  • Temperature: thermometers and temperaturescales:

Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin; Heatdefinition;

  • Heat capacity, specific heat;

Heat transfer: convection, radiation andconduction; Volumetric expansion; First and second law of thermodynamics;

Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat atconstant volume and constant pressure, workdone by expanding gas;

Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;

Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat of combustion.

  • Optics (Light) (level 2)

Nature of light; speed of light;

Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflectionby spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses; Fibre optics.

  • Wave Motion and Sound (level 2)

Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interferencephenomena, standing waves;

Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch andquality, Doppler effect.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 3. Electrical fundamentals (EASA Part-66)

Content

  • Electron Theory (level 1)

Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules, ions, compounds;

Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

  • Static Electricity and Conduction (level 2)

Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges; Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion; Units of charge, Coulomb's Law; Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum

  • Electrical Terminology (level 2)

The following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potentialdifference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance, conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow.

  • Generation of Electricity (level 1)

Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

  • DC Sources of Electricity (level 2)

Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid cells, nickel cadmium cells, other alkaline cells;

Cells connected in series and parallel; Internal resistance and its effect on a battery; Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples; Operation of photo-cells.

  • DC Circuits (level 2)

Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Voltage and Current Laws; Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage and current; Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.

  • Resistance/Resistor (level 2)
  • Resistance and affecting factors;

Specific resistance; Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattageratings; Resistors in series and parallel; Calculation of total resistance using series, parallel and seriesparallel combinations; Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats; Operation of Wheatstone Bridge.

  • Positive and negative temperature coefficientconductance; Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of construction; Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent resistors; Construction of potentiometers and rheostats; Construction of Wheatstone Bridge.
    • Power (level 2)

Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential); Dissipation of power by a resistor; Power formula; Calculations involving power, work and energy.

  • Capacitance / Capacitor (level 2)

Operation and function of a capacitor;

Factors affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage rating; Capacitor types, construction and function; Capacitor colour coding; Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits; Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants; Testing of capacitors.

  • Magnetism (level 2)
  • Theory of magnetism

Properties of a magnet; Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth's magnetic field; Magnetisation and demagnetisation; Magnetic shielding; Various types of magnetic material; Electromagnets construction and principles of operation; Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor.

  • Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density, permeability, hysteresis loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance, saturation point, eddy currents; Precautions for care and storage of magnets.
    • Inductance/Inductor (level 2)

Faraday's Law; Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field; Induction principles; Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magneticfield strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns;

Mutual induction; The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductancehas on induced voltage; Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical sizeof coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each other; Lenz's Law and polarity determining rules; Back emf, self induction; Saturation point; Principle uses of inductors.

  • DC Motor / Generator Theory (level 2)

Basic motor and generator theory; Construction and purpose of components in DC generator; Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators; Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed anddirection of rotation of DC motors; Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors; Starter Generator construction.

  • AC Theory (level 2)

Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle; Instantaneous, average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak currentvalues and calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current andpower Triangular / Square waves; Single / 3 phase principles.

  • Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits (level 2)

Phase relationship of voltage and current in L, C and R circuits, parallel, series and series parallel; Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits; Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations; True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations.

  • Transformers (level 2)

Transformer construction principles and operation; Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them; Transformer action under load and no-load conditions; Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings; Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents; Calculation of power in a three phase system; Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio, power, efficiency; Auto transformers.

  • Filters (level 1)

Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, highpass, band pass, band stop.

  • AC Generators (level 2)

Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced; Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators; Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators; Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses; Permanent Magnet Generators.

  • AC Motors (level 2)

Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase; Methods of speed control and direction of rotation; Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 4. Electronic fundamentals (EASA Part-66)

Content

  • Semiconductors
    • Diodes (level 2)
  • Diode symbols; Diode characteristics and properties; Diodes in series and parallel; Main characteristics and use of silicon controlled rectifiers (thyristors), light emitting diode, photo conductive diode, varistor, rectifier diodes; Functional testing of diodes.
    • Transistors (level 1)

Transistor symbols; Component description and orientation; Transistor characteristics and properties.

Integrated Circuits

Description and operation of logic circuits and linear circuits / operational amplifiers.

  • Printed Circuit Boards (level 1)

Description and use of printed circuit boards.

  • Servomechanisms (level 1)
  • Understanding of the following terms: Open and closed loop systems, feedback, follow up, analogue transducers; Principles of operation and use of the following synchro systemcomponents / features: resolvers, differential, control and torque, transformers, inductance and capacitance transmitters.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 5. Digital Techniques Electronic Instrument Systems (EASA Part-66)

Content

5.1. Electronic Instrument Systems (level 2)

Typical systems arrangements and cockpit layout of electronic instrument systems

5.2. Numbering Systems (level 1)              

Numbering systems: binary, octal and hexadecimal; Demonstration of conversions between the decimal and binary, octal and hexadecimal systems and vice versa.

5.3. Data Conversion (level 1)                     

Analogue Data, Digital Data; Operation and application of analogue to digital, and digital to analogue converters, inputs and outputs, limitations of various types.

5.4. Data Buses (level 2)                              

Operation of data buses in aircraft systems, including knowledge of ARINC and other specifications.

Aircraft Network/Ethernet

5.5. Logic Circuits                                       

(a) Identification of common logic gate symbols, tables and equivalent circuits; Applications used for aircraft systems, schematic diagrams. (level 2)

5.6. Basic Computer Structure       

(a) Computer terminology (including bit, byte, software, hardware, CPU, IC, and various memory devices such as RAM, ROM, PROM); Computer technology (as applied in aircraft systems). (level 2)

5.10. Fibre Optics (level 1)                           

Advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic data transmission over electrical wire propagation; Fibre optic data bus; Fibre optic related terms; Terminations; Couplers, control terminals, remote terminals; Application of fibre optics in aircraft systems.

5.11. Electronic Displays (level 2)                          

Principles of operation of common types of displays used in modern aircraft, including Cathode Ray Tubes, Light Emitting Diodes and Liquid Crystal Display.

5.12. Electrostatic Sensitive Devices (level 2)

Special handling of components sensitive to electrostatic discharges; Awareness of risks and possible damage, component and personnel anti-static protection devices.

5.13. Software Management Control (level 2)

Awareness of restrictions, airworthiness requirements and possible catastrophic effects of unapproved changes to software programs.

5.14. Electromagnetic Environment (level 2)

Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance practices for electronic system:

EMC-Electromagnetic Compatibility; EMI-Electromagnetic Interference

HIRF-High Intensity Radiated Field; Lightning/lightning protection

5.15. Typical Electronic/Digital Aircraft Systems

General arrangement of typical electronic/digital aircraft systems and associated BITE (Built In Test Equipment) testing such as:

(a) ACARS-ARINC Communication and Addressing and Reporting System

EICAS-Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System

FBW-Fly by Wire

FMS-Flight Management System; IRS-Inertial Reference System (level 2)

(b) ECAM-Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring

EFIS-Electronic Flight Instrument System

GPS-Global Positioning System

TCAS-Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System

Integrated Modular Avionics

Cabin Systems

Information Systems (level 2)

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 6. Materials and Hardware (EASA Part-66)

Content

6.1. Aircraft MaterialsFerrous

(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common alloy steels used in aircraft;

Heat treatment and application of alloy steels; (level 2)

(b) Testing of ferrous materials for hardness, tensile strength, fatigue strength and impact resistance. (level 1)

6.2. Aircraft Materials Non-Ferrous

(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common non-ferrous materials used in aircraft; Heat treatment and application of non-ferrous materials; (level 2)

(b) Testing of non-ferrous material for hardness, tensile strength, fatigue strength and impact resistance (level 1)

6.3. Aircraft Materials Composite and Non-Metallic

6.3.1 Composite and non-metallic other than wood and fabric

(a) Characteristics, properties and identification of common composite and non-metallic materials, other than wood, used in aircraft; Sealant and bonding agents. (level 2)

(b) The detection of defects/deterioration in composite and non-metallic material.

Repair of composite and non-metallic material. (level 2)

6.3.2 Wooden structures

Construction methods of wooden airframe structures; Characteristics, properties and types of wood and glue used in airplanes; Preservation and maintenance of wooden structure; Types of defects in wood material and wooden structures; The detection of defects in wooden structure; Repair of wooden structure. (level 2)

6.3.3 Fabric covering

Characteristics, properties and types of fabrics used in airplanes; Inspections methods for fabric; Types of defects in fabric; Repair of fabric covering.

(level 2)

6.4. Corrosion

(a) Chemical fundamentals;

Formation by, galvanic action process, microbiological, stress; (level 1)

(b) Types of corrosion and their identification;

Causes of corrosion; Material types, susceptibility to corrosion. (level 3)

6.5. Fasteners

6.5.1 Screw threads

Screw nomenclature;

Thread forms, dimensions and tolerances for standard threads used in aircraft;

Measuring screw threads; (level 2)

6.5.2 Bolts, studs and screws

Bolt types: specification, identification and marking of aircraft bolts, international standards;

Nuts: self locking, anchor, standard types; Machine screws: aircraft specifications;

Studs: types and uses, insertion and removal; Self tapping screws, dowels. (level 2)

6.5.3 Locking devices

Tab and spring washers, locking plates, split pins, pal-nuts, wire locking, quick release fasteners, keys, circlips, cotter pins. (level 2)

6.5.4 Aircraft rivets

Types of solid and blind rivets: specifications and identification, heat treatment. (level 2)

6.6. Pipes and Unions

(a) Identification of, and types of rigid and flexible pipes and their connectors used in aircraft; (level 2)

(b) Standard unions for aircraft hydraulic, fuel, oil, pneumatic and air system pipes. (level 2)

6.7. Springs (level 2)

Types of springs, materials, characteristics and applications.

6.8. Bearings (level 2)

Purpose of bearings, loads, material, construction; Types of bearings and their application.

6.9. Transmissions (level 2)

Gear types and their application; Gear ratios, reduction and multiplication gear systems, driven and driving gears, idler gears, mesh patterns; Belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets.

6.10. Control Cables (level 2)

Types of cables; End fittings, turnbuckles and compensation devices; Pulleys and cable system components; Bowden cables; Aircraft flexible control systems.

6.11. Electrical Cables and Connectors (level 2)

Cable types, construction and characteristics; High tension and co-axial cables; Crimping; Connector types, pins, plugs, sockets, insulators, current and voltage rating, coupling, identification codes.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 7. Maintenance Practices (EASA Part-66)

Content

7.1. Safety Precautions - Aircraft and Workshop (level 3)

Aspects of safe working practices including precautions to take when working with electricity, gases especially oxygen, oils and chemicals.

Also, instruction in the remedial action to be taken in the event of a fire or another accident with one or more of these hazards including knowledge on extinguishing agents.

7.2. Workshop Practices (level 3)

Care of tools, control of tools, use of workshop materials; Dimensions, allowances and tolerances, standards of workmanship; Calibration of tools and equipment, calibration standarts.

7.3. Tools (level 3)

Common hand tool types; Common power tool types; Operation and use of precision measuring tools; Lubrication equipment and methods.

Operation, function and use of electrical general test equipment.

7.4. Avionic General Test Equipment (level 2)

Operation, function and use of avionic general test equipment.

7.5. Engineering Drawings, Diagrams and Standards (level 2)

Drawing types and diagrams, their symbols, dimensions, tolerances and projections; Identifying title block information; Microfilm, microfiche and computerized presentations;Specification 100 of the Air Transport Association (ATA) of America; Aeronautical and other applicable standards including ISO, AN, MS, NAS and MIL; Wiring diagrams and schematic diagrams.

7.6. Fits and Clearances (level 2)

Drill sizes for bolt holes, classes of fits; Common system of fits and clearances; Schedule of fits and clearances for aircraft and engines; Limits for bow, twist and wear; Standard methods for checking shafts, bearings.

7.7. Electrical Wiring Installation System (EWIS) (level 3)

Continuity, insulation and bonding techniques and testing;  Use of crimp tools: hand and hydraulic operated; Testing of crimp joints; Connector pin removal and insertion; Co-axial cables: testing and installation precautions; Wiring protection techniques: Cable looming and loom support, cable clamps, protective sleeving techniques including heat shrink wrapping, shielding; EWIS installations, inspection, repair, maintenance and cleanliness standarts.

7.8. Riveting (level 2)

Riveted joints, rivet spacing and pitch; Tools used for riveting and dimpling; Inspection of riveted joints.

7.9. Pipes and Hoses (level 2)

Bending and belling/flaring aircraft pipes;Inspection and testing of aircraft pipes and hoses; Installation and clamping of pipes.

7.10. Springs

Inspection and testing of springs.

7.11. Bearings (level 2)

Testing, cleaning and inspection of bearings; Lubrication requirements of bearings; Defects in bearings and their causes.

7.12. Transmissions (level 2)

Inspection of gears, backlash; Inspection of belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets; Inspection of screw jacks, lever devices, push-pull rod systems.

7.13. Control Cables (level 2)

Swaging of end fittings; Inspection and testing of control cables; Bowden cables; aircraft flexible control systems.

7.14. Material handling

7.14.1. Sheet Metal (level 2)

Marking out and calculation of bend allowance; Sheet metal working, including bending and forming; Inspection of sheet metal work.

7.14.2. Composite and non-metallic (level 2)

Bonding practices; Environmental conditions Inspection methods.

7.15. Welding, Brazing, Soldering and Bonding

(a) Soldering methods; inspection of soldered joints (level 2)

(b) Welding and brazing methods; Inspection of welded and brazed joints;

Bonding methods and inspection of bonded joints (level 2)

7.16. Aircraft Weight and Balance

(a) Centre of Gravity/Balance limits calculation: use of relevant documents; (level 2)

(b) Preparation of aircraft for weighing;Aircraft weighing; (level 2)

7.17. Aircraft Handling and Storage (level 2)

Aircraft taxiing/towing and associated safety precautions; Aircraft jacking, chocking, securing and associated safety precautions; Aircraft storage methods; Refueling /defueling procedures; De-icing/anti-icing procedures; Electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic ground supplies.

Effects of environmental conditions on aircraft handling and operation.

7.18. Disassembly, Inspection, Repair and Assembly Techniques

(a) Types of defects and visual inspection techniques. Corrosion removal, assessment and re-protection. (level 3)

  1. b) General repair methods, Structural Repair Manual;Ageing, fatigue and corrosion control programs; (level 2)

(c) Nondestructive inspection techniques including, penetrant,radiographic, eddy current, ultrasonic and borescope methods (level 2)

(d) Disassembly and re-assembly techniques. (level 2)

(e) Trouble shooting techniques (level 2)

7.19. Abnormal Events

(a) Inspections following lightning strikes and HIRF penetration (level 2)

(b) Inspections following abnormal events such as heavy landings and flight through turbulence. (level 2)

7.20. Maintenance Procedures (level 2)

Maintenance planning; Modification procedures; Stores procedures; Certification/release procedures; Interface with aircraft operation; Maintenance Inspection/Quality Control/Quality Assurance; Additional maintenance procedures. Control of life limited components

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 8. Basic Aerodynamics (EASA Part-66)

Content

8.1. Physics of the Atmosphere (level 2)

International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), application to aerodynamics

8.2. Aerodynamics (level 2)

Airflow around a body; Boundary layer, laminar and turbulent flow, free stream flow, relative airflow, upwash and downwash, vortices, stagnation;

The terms: camber, chord, mean aerodynamic chord, profile (parasite) drag, induced drag, centre of pressure, angle of attack, wash in and wash out, fineness ratio, wing shape and aspect ratio; Thrust, Weight, Aerodynamic Resultant; Generation of Lift and Drag: Angle of Attack, Lift coefficient, Drag coefficient, polar curve, stall; Aerofoil contamination including ice, snow, frost.

8.3. Theory of Flight (level 2)

Relationship between lift, weight, thrust and drag; Glide ratio; Steady state flights, performance; Theory of the turn; Influence of load factor: stall, flight envelope and structural limitations; Lift augmentation.

8.4. Flight Stability and Dynamics (level 2)

Longitudinal, lateral and directional stability (active and passive).

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 9. Human Factors (EASA Part-66)

Content

9.1. General (level 2)

The need to take human factors into account; Incidents attributable to human factors / human error; “Murphy’s” law.

9.2. Human Performance and Limitations (level 2)

Vision; Hearing; Information processing; Attention and perception; Memory; Claustrophobia and physical access.

9.3. Social Psychology (level 1)

Responsibility: individual and group; Motivation and de-motivation; Peer pressure; Culture issues; Team working; Management, supervision and leadership.

9.4. Factors Affecting Performance (level 2)

Fitness and health; Stress: domestic and work related; Time pressure and deadlines; Workload: overload and underload; Sleep and fatigue, shift work; Alcohol, medication, drug abuse.

9.5. Physical Environment (level 1)

Noise and fumes; Illumination; Climate and temperature; Motion and vibration; Working environment.

9.6. Tasks (level 1)

Physical work; Repetitive tasks; Visual inspection; Complex tasks.

9.7. Communication (level 2)

Within and between teams; Work logging and recording; Keeping up to date, currency; Dissemination of information.

9.8. Human Error (level 2)

Error models and theories; Types of error in maintenance tasks; Implications of errors; Avoiding and managing errors.

9.9. Hazards in the Workplace (level 2)

Recognizing and avoiding hazards; Dealing with emergencies.

Practical TrainingNo
ExaminationYes
EssayNo

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Module 10. Aviation Legislation (EASA Part-66)

Content

10.1. Regulatory Framework (level 1)

Role of International Civil Aviation Organization; Role of European Commission; Role of EASA; Role of the Member States and National Aviation Authorities; Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules Regulations (EU) No 748/2012 and (EU) No 1321/2014; Relationship between the various Annexes (Parts) such as Part-21, Part-M, Part-145, Part-66, Part-147 and Regulation (EU) No 965/2012.

10.2. Certifying StaffMaintenance (level 2)

Detailed understanding of Part-66.

10.3. Approved Maintenance Organizations (level 2)

Detailed understanding of Part-145 and Part-M Subpart F.

10.4. Air operations: (level 1)

General understanding of Regulation (EU) No 965/2012;  Air Operators Certificates; Operators responsibilities, in particular regarding continuing airworthiness and maintenance; Aircraft Maintenance Programme; MEL/CDL; Documents to be Carried on board; Aircraft Placarding (Markings).

10.5. Certification of aircraft, parts and appliances

(a) General (level 1)

General understanding of Part-21 and EASA certification specifications CS-23, 25, 27, 29.

(b) Documents (level 2)

Certificate of Airworthiness; restricted certificates of airworthiness and permit to fly; Certificate of Registration; Noise Certificate; Weight Schedule; Radio Station Licence and Approval.

10.6. Continuing airworthiness (level 2)

Detailed understanding of Part-21 provisions related to continuing airworthiness; Detailed understanding of Part-M.

10.7. Applicable National and International Requirements (if not superseded by EU requirements)

(a) Maintenance Programmes, Maintenance checks and inspections; Airworthiness Directives; Service Bulletins, manufacturers service information; Modifications and repairs; Maintenance documentation: maintenance manuals, structural repair manual, illustrated parts catalogue, etc.

(b) Continuing airworthiness; Minimum equipment requirements — Test flights; ETOPS, maintenance and dispatch requirements; All Weather Operations, Category 2/3 operations (level 1)

Practical TrainingNo
ExaminationYes
EssayNo

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Module 11A. Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems (EASA Part-66)

Content

11.1. Theory of Flight

11.1.1. Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls (level 2)

Operation and effect of: - roll control: ailerons and spoilers, - pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards, - yaw control, rudder limiters; Control using elevons, ruddervators; High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons; Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes; Effects of wing fences saw tooth leading edges; Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices; Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels.

11.1.2. High Speed Flight (level 2)

Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight; Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule; Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft; Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.

11.2. Airframe Structures – General Concepts

(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength; (level 2)

Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary; Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts; Zonal and station identification systems; Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue; Drains and ventilation provisions; System installation provisions; Lightning strike protection provision; Aircraft bonding.

(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments; Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding; Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting; Surface cleaning. Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks. (level 2)

11.3. Airframe Structures – Airplanes

11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56) (level 2)

Construction and pressurization sealing; Wing, stabilizer, pylon and undercarriage attachments; Seat installation and cargo loading system; Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices; Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.

11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57) (level 2)

Construction; Fuel storage; Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.

11.3.3 Stabilizers (ATA 55) (level 2)

Construction; Control surface attachment.

11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57) (level 2)

Construction and attachment; Balancing – mass and aerodynamic.

11.3.5 Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54) (level 2)

Construction; Firewalls; Engine mounts.

11.4. Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurizations (ATA-21)

11.4.1 Air supply (level 2)

Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart;

11.4.2 Air Conditioning (level 3)

Air conditioning systems; Air cycle and vapour cycle machines; Distribution systems; Flow, temperature and humidity control system.

11.4.3 Pressurization (level 3)

Pressurization systems; Control and indication including control and safety valves; Cabin pressure controllers.

11.4.4 Safety and warning devices (level 3)

Protection and warning devices.

11.5. Instruments/Avionic Systems

11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31) (level 2)

Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator; Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator; Compasses: direct reading, remote reading; Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems; Other aircraft system indication.

11.5.2 Avionic Systems (level 1)

Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of; Auto Flight (ATA 22); Communications (ATA 23); Navigation Systems (ATA 34).

11.6. Electrical Power (ATA 24) (level 3)

Batteries Installation and Operation;/ Установка и эксплуатация аккумуляторов; DC power generation; AC power generation; Emergency power generation; Voltage regulation; Power distribution; Inverters, transformers, rectifiers; Circuit protection. External/Ground power.

11.7. Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)

(a) Emergency equipment requirements; Seats, harnesses and belts. (level 2)

(b) Cabin lay-out; Equipment lay-out; Cabin Furnishing Installation; Cabin entertainment equipment; Galley installation; Cargo handling and retention equipment; Airstairs. (level 1)

11.8. Fire Protection (ATA 26)

(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems; Fire extinguishing systems; System tests. (level 3)

(b) Portable fire extinguisher (level 1)

11.9. Flight Controls (ATA 27) (level 3)

Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler; Trim control; Active load control; High lift devices; Lift dump, speed brakes; System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-by-wire; Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks systems; Balancing and rigging; Stall protection/warning system.

11.10. Fuel Systems (ATA 28) (level 3)

System lay-out; Fuel tanks; Supply systems; Dumping, venting and draining; Cross-feed and transfer; Indications and warnings; Refuelling and defuelling; Longitudinal balance fuel systems.

11.11. Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) (level 3)

System lay-out; Hydraulic fluids; Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators; Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic; Emergency pressure generation; Pressure Control; Power distribution; Indication and warning systems; Interface with other systems.

11.12. Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) (level 3)

Ice formation, classification and detection; Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical; De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical; Rain repellent; Probe and drain heating; Wiper systems.

11.13. Landing Gear (ATA 32) (level 3)

Construction, shock absorbing; Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency; Indications and warning; Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking; Tyres; Steering.

11.14. Lights (ATA 33) (level 3)

External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice; Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo; Emergency.

11.15. Oxygen (ATA 35) (level 3)

System lay-out: cockpit, cabin; Sources, storage, charging and distribution; Supply regulation; Indications and warnings

11.16. Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36) (level 3)

System lay-out; Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply; Pressure control; Distribution; Indications and warnings; Interfaces with other systems.

11.17. Water/Waste (ATA 38) (level 3)

Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining; Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing; Corrosion aspects.

11.18. On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45) (level 2)

Central maintenance computers; Data loading system; Electronic library system; Printing; Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).

11.19. Integrated Modular Avionics (ATA42) (level 2)

Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic (IMA) modules are, among others: Bleed Management, Air Pressure Control, Air Ventilation and Control, Avionics and Cockpit Ventilation Control, Temperature Control, Air Traffic Communication, Avionics Communication Router, Electrical Load Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring, Electrical System BITE, Fuel Management, Braking Control, Steering Control, Landing Gear Extension and Retraction, Tyre Pressure Indication, Oleo Pressure Indication, Brake Temperature Monitoring, etc.  Core System; Network Components.

11.20. Cabin Systems (ATA44) (level 2)

The units and components which furnish a means of entertaining the passengers and providing communication within the aircraft (Cabin Intercommunication Data System) and between the aircraft cabin and ground stations (Cabin Network Service). Includes voice, data, music and video transmissions. The Cabin Intercommunication Data System provides an interface between cockpit/cabin crew and cabin systems. These systems support data exchange of the different related LRU’s and they are typically operated via Flight Attendant Panels. The Cabin Network Service typically consists on a server, typically interfacing with, among others, the following systems: - Data/Radio Communication, In-Flight Entertainment System. The Cabin Network Service may host functions such as: - Access to pre-departure/departure reports, -E-mail/intranet/Internet access, - Passenger database; Cabin Core System; In-flight Entertainment System; External Communication System; Cabin Mass Memory System; Cabin Monitoring System; Miscellaneous Cabin System.

11.21. Information Systems (ATA46) (level 2)

The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and retrieving digital information traditionally provided on paper, microfilm or microfiche. Includes units that are dedicated to the information storage and retrieval function such as the electronic library mass storage and controller. Does not include units or components installed for other uses and shared with other systems, such as flight deck printer or general use display. Typical examples include Air Traffic and Information Management Systems and Network Server Systems; Aircraft General Information System; Flight Deck Information System; Maintenance Information System; Passenger Cabin Information System; Miscellaneous Information System.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 15. Gas Turbine Engine (EASA Part-66)

Content

15.1. Fundamentals (level 2)

Potential energy, kinetic energy, Newton's laws of motion,Brayton cycle; The relationship between force, work, power, energy, velocity,acceleration; Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet,turbofan, turboshaft, turboprop.

15.2. Engine Performance (level 2)

Gross thrust, net thrust, choked nozzle thrust, thrust distribution,resultant thrust, thrust horsepower, equivalent shaft horsepower, specific fuel consumption; Engine efficiencies; By-pass ratio and engine pressure ratio; Pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas flow; Engine ratings, static thrust, influence of speed, altitude and hot climate, flat rating, limitations.

15.3. Inlet (level 2)

Compressor inlet ducts; Effects of various inlet configurations; Ice protection.

15.4. Compressors (level 2)

Axial and centrifugal types; Constructional features and operating principles and applications; Fan balancing; Operation:Causes and effects of compressor stall and surge; Methods of air flow control: bleed valves, variable inlet guide vanes, variable stator vanes, rotating stator blades; Compressor ratio.

15.5. Combustion Section (level 2)

Constructional features and principles of operation.

15.6. Turbine Section(level 2)

Operation and characteristics of different turbine blade types; Blade to disk attachment; Nozzle guide vanes; Causes and effects of turbine blade stress and creep.

15.7. Exhaust (level 2)

Constructional features and principles of operation; Convergent, divergent and variable area nozzles; Engine noise reduction; Thrust reversers.

15.8. Bearings and Seals (level 2)

Constructional features and principles of operation.

15.9. Lubricants and Fuels (level 2)

Properties and specifications; Fuel additives; Safety precautions.

15.10. Lubrication Systems (level 2)

System operation/lay-out and components.

15.11. Fuel Systems (level 2)

Operation of engine control and fuel metering systems including electronic engine control (FADEC); Systems lay-out and components.

15.12. Air Systems (level 2)

Operation of engine air distribution and anti-ice control systems, including internal cooling, sealing and external air services.

15.13. Starting and Ignition Systems (level 2)

Operation of engine start systems and components; Ignition systems and components; Maintenance safety requirements.

15.14. Engine Indication Systems (level 2)

Exhaust Gas Temperature/Interstage Turbine Temperature; Engine Thrust Indication:  Engine Pressure Ratio, engine turbine discharge pressure or jet pipe pressure systems; Oil pressure and temperature; Fuel pressure and flow; Engine speed; Vibration measurement and indication; Torque; Power.

15.15. Power Augmentation Systems (level 1)

Operation and applications; Water injection, water methanol; Afterburner systems.

15.16. Turbo-prop Engines (level 2)

Gas coupled/free turbine and gear coupled turbines; Reduction gears; Integrated engine and propeller controls; Overspeed safety devices.

15.17. Turbo-shaft engines (level 2)

Arrangements, drive systems, reduction gearing, couplings, control systems.

15.18. Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) (level 2)

Purpose, operation, protective systems.

15.19. Powerplant Installation (level 2)      

Configuration of firewalls, cowlings, acoustic panels,engine mounts, anti-vibration mounts, hoses, pipes, feeders, connectors, wiring looms, control cables and rods,lifting points and drains.

15.20. Fire Protection Systems (level 2)

Operation of detection and extinguishing systems.

15.21. Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation (level 3)

Procedures for starting and ground run-up; Interpretation of engine power output and parameters; Trend (including oil analysis, vibration and boroscope) monitoring; Inspection of engine and components to criteria, tolerances and data specified by engine manufacturer; Compressor washing/cleaning; Foreign Object Damage.

15.22. Engine Storage and Preservation (level 2)

Preservation and depreservation for the engine and accessories.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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Module 17. Propeller (EASA Part-66)

Content

17.1. Fundamentals (level 2)

Blade element theory; High/low blade angle, reverse angle, angle of attack, rotational speed; Propeller slip; Aerodynamic, centrifugal, and thrust forces; Torque; Relative airflow on blade angle of attack; Vibration and resonance.

17.2. Propeller Construction (level 2)

Construction methods and materials used in wooden, composite and metal propellers; Blade station, blade face, blade shank, blade back and hub assembly; Fixed pitch, controllable pitch, constant speeding propeller; Propeller/spinner installation.

17.3. Propeller Pitch Control (level 2)

Speed control and pitch change methods, mechanical and electrical/electronic; Feathering and reverse pitch; Overspeed protection.

17.4. Propeller Synchronizing (level 2)

Synchronising and synchrophasing equipment.

17.5. Propeller Ice Protection (level 2)

Fluid and electrical de-icing equipment.

17.6. Propeller Maintenance (level 3)

Static and dynamic balancing; Blade tracking; Assessment of blade damage, erosion, corrosion, impact damage, delamination; Propeller treatment/repair schemes; Propeller engine running.

17.7. Propeller Storage and Preservation (level 2)

Propeller preservation and depreservation.

Practical TrainingYes
ExaminationYes
EssayYes

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